This post marks the beginning of an occasional series on the topic of using Ruby to write concurrent code. Ruby doesn't yet have a big reputation in the world of concurrent and/or parallel applications, but there is some interesting work being done in this space. And since problems in concurrency are notoriously difficult to reason about we could probably do a lot worse than attempt to address those problems in a language designed to make life easier for the developer.
We begin with Akka, an excellent library designed to bring actors, actor coordination and STM to Scala and, to a slightly lesser degree, the JVM generally. Our initial task is simple: we wish to be able to define an Akka actor by providing a message handler as a code block. We'll start by attempting to implement the actor as a standalone class and then abstract that solution into code which requires the input block and nothing else.
A simple initial implementation looks something like this:
[@varese ruby]$ ruby --version
jruby 1.6.2 (ruby-1.8.7-p330) (2011-05-23 e2ea975) (OpenJDK Client VM 1.6.0_22) [linux-i386-java]
[@varese ruby]$ ruby akka_sample1.rb
ArgumentError: Constructor invocation failed: ActorRef for instance of actor [org.jruby.proxy.akka.actor.UntypedActor$Proxy0] is not in scope.
You can not create an instance of an actor explicitly using 'new MyActor'.
You have to use one of the factory methods in the 'Actor' object to create a new actor.
'val actor = Actor.actorOf[MyActor]', or
'val actor = Actor.actorOf(new MyActor(..))'
(root) at akka_sample1.rb:20
Well, that didn't work very well. Apparently the class we defined in JRuby is being exposed to the Java lib as a proxy object and that proxy's class is unknown to the Akka runtime. No problem; Akka supports a factory model for actor creation, and by using that approach the underlying class of our actor should become a non-issue. With a few simple changes we're ready to try again:
[@varese ruby]$ ruby akka_sample2.rb
Received message: foo
We now have a working actor, but we still have some work to do; remember, we want to be able to define arbitrary actors by supplying just a code block. We need a few additional pieces to make this work:
- A generic actor implementation whose state includes a block or Proc instance. The onReceive method of this actor could then simply call the contained block/Proc, passing the input message as an arg.
- An ActorFactory implementation which takes a code block as an arg, stores it in internal state and then uses that block to build an instance of the generic actor described above on demand.
A first cut at this concept might look something like this:
[@varese ruby]$ ruby akka_sample3.rb
ArgumentError: wrong number of arguments for constructor
create at akka_sample3.rb:29
(root) at akka_sample3.rb:37
What went wrong here? UntypedActor is a concrete class with a defined no-arg constructor. That constructor is being called in favor of the one we've provided, and as a consequence our block never gets into the mix. There's almost certainly a cleaner way to solve this using JRuby, but for the moment we can get around the problem (in an admittedly ugly way) by providing a setter on our generic actor class:
[@varese ruby]$ ruby akka_sample4.rb
Message recieved: foo
We now have what we wanted.
If you're interested in this topic note that Nick Sieger has covered similar ground (including the interaction between JRuby and Akka) here. Nick's article draws on some very good work done by Daniel Ribeiro late last year. The code referenced in Daniel's article is available on Github. I didn't come across Daniel's post until my own was nearly done but there is quite a bit of overlap between his code and mine. That said, I recommend taking a look at both articles, if for no other reason than the fact that both authors are much better at writing Ruby code than I am.